الگوی رابطه ای مدیریت مکان- جرم به عنوان رهیافتی روش شناختی در جرایم شهری

نوع مقاله : مقاله مستخرج از رساله دکتری

نویسندگان

1 گروه شهرسازی، دانشکده فنی مهندسی، واحد تهران جنوب، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی، تهران، ایران.

2 استاد گروه شهرسازی، واحد تهران غرب، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی، تهران، ایران.

3 . دانشیار گروه شهرسازی، دانشگاه تربیت مدرس، دانشکده هنر، تهران، ایران.

چکیده

مفاهیم «مدیریت مکان» و توجه به عامل «مکان» یکی از پیشرفتهای اخیر در آراء حوزه خاص «جرم شناسی محیطی و مکانی» می باشند. هدف از این مطالعه، ارائه یک الگوی جدید مدیریت مکان و نقد الگوهای قطعی از مکان در تکنیک مدیریت مکان است. رویکرد تحقیق این مطالعه، کیفی، برخوردار از دو راهبرد شبیه سازی و استدلال منطقی و مبتنی بر تحلیل های ثانویه از داده های جرایم واقعی است. جامعه آماری تحقیق نیز شامل 392 مورد مکان نهایی جرایم شهری است که به کمک تکنیک تحلیل محتوای کمّی از میان آمار جراید موجود در سایت مگ ایران در بازه زمانی 1390 الی 1399 شمسی در میان سه محدوده جغرافیایی و محدوده کلانتری سه محله نارمک، نازی آباد و پونک؛ استخراج و تعداد نمونه های منتخب نیز معادل سهم ده درصدی از کل جامعه آماری و معرفی یک سوم از بهترین نمونه های معرف مدل رابطه ای مکان تحقیق می باشد.مطالعه، دارای یک «الگوی رابطه ای مکان» و یک «الگوی مرکب مدیریت مکان» در جرم است. «الگوی مرکب مدیریت مکان» از یک سو دارای هستی شناسی مدیریتی و از سوی دیگر دارای معرفت شناسی مکانی همسو با معرفت شناسی الگوی مکان است. هستی شناسی «الگوی مکان» مطالعه، همراه با ساختار مولفه های باز، تبیینی و ماهیتی رابطه ای است. معرفت شناسی «الگوی مکان» نیز شامل هشت عامل فُرم-کالبد، فعالیت، منابع، مجاورت، آلودگی، بی نظارتی، بی مشارکتی و بی شراکتی است.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

The Relational Model of Place-Crime Management as a Methodological Approach in Urban Crimes

نویسندگان [English]

  • Mitra Kalantari 1
  • Esmaeil Shieh 2
  • Mojtaba Rafieian 3
1 Department of Urban Planning, Faculty of Engineering, South Tehran Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran
2 Professor, Department of Urban Planning, West Tehran Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran (Corresponding Author).
3 Associate Professor, Department of Urban Planning, Tarbiat Modares University, Faculty of Arts, Tehran, Iran.
چکیده [English]

Abstract
Background and objectives: The category of "place management" and the "place" factor are one of the recent advances in situation-based crime prevention approaches. The purpose of this study was to integrate these two concepts in the form of presenting two qualitative models mixed with real evidence of urban crimes.
Methodology: The research approach is qualitative, which has two strategies of simulation and logical reasoning based on secondary analysis of quantitative data of real crimes and extraction of components related to "place in crime". The statistical population of the study also includes 392 cases of the final location of urban crimes that were extracted with the help of quantitative content analysis technique on the "MagIran" site in the period 2011 to 2019 within the police and geographical area of Narmak, Naziabad and Punak neighborhoods; and the number of selected samples was equal to ten percent of the total statistical population.
Findings: The results of the research showed that the integrated concept of "place-crime" and also a "relational model of place" can be used for the "composite model of place management" in crime. The ontology of the "place model" of the study has been associated with the structure of open, explanatory, and relational components. The epistemology of "place model" and "place management model" also included eight elements of form-physical attributes, activity, resources, proximity, pollution, non-supervisory, non-participation and non-partnership.
Results: The study presented the two theoretical models of the relationship between crime place and place management in their general form as a theoretical-methodical order and the possibility of operational use of these two models in applied criminological and police research was provided.
 

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Crime
  • Place
  • Crime place
  • Relational model of place
  • Place management
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